Extreme weather phenomenons
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Extreme weather can be defined as any kind of meteorological event which can cause sudden dramatical changes to the climate. Global warming,mass deforestation or other natural disasters can determine extreme weather changes and phenomena. Scientists believe that as the world warms and climates change, we will see more and severe tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, floods, wildfires and droughts. Extreme weather includes weather phenomena that are at the extremes of the historical distribution, especially severe phenomena . The most commonly used definition of extreme weather is based on an event's climatologically distribution.

Extreme Weather can trigger extreme phenomena which can generate Extreme weather events:
        

  •   Severe Thunderstorm
  •   Tornadoes
  •   Extreme Lightning’s & thunders
  •   Straight-line Winds  Flash Flooding
  •   Hail  Freezing Rain
  •   Tropical cyclones
  •   Dust Storm
  •   Droughts
  •   Rogue wave
  •   Heat waves
  •   Cold waves 

        

Severe Thunderstorm - Nature’s most violent storms. A thunderstorm that produces a tornado, winds of at least 58 mph (50 knots), and/or hail at least 1 inch in diameter.


clouds_and_lightning

Structural wind damage may imply the occurrence of a severe thunderstorm and can affect relatively small areas when compared with hurricanes and winter storms. The typical thunderstorm is 15 miles in diameter and lasts an average of 30 minutes. Despite their small size, ALL thunderstorms are dangerous! Of the estimated 100,000 thunderstorms that occur each year in the United States, about 10 percent are classified as severe.

 

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Tornado - A violently rotating column of air, usually pendant to a cumulonimbus, extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. It nearly always starts as a funnel cloud and may be accompanied by a loud roaring noise. On a local scale, it is the most destructive of all atmospheric phenomena. Although tornadoes occur in many parts of the world, they are found most frequently in the United States.

tornado-at-sunset

Tornadoes cause an average of 70 fatalities and 1,500 injuries in the U.S. each year.. The strongest tornadoes have rotating winds of more than 250 mph.(402.3 km/h) Tornadoes can be one mile wide and stay on the ground over 50 miles.(80.5 km/h) Tornadoes may appear nearly transparent until dust and debris are picked up or a cloud forms within the funnel. The average tornado moves from southwest to northeast, but Tornadoes have been known to move in any direction. The average forward speed is 30 mph (48.3 km/h) but may vary from nearly stationary to 70 mph (112.7 km/h). Waterspouts are tornadoes which form over warm water. They can move onshore and cause damage to coastal areas.

 

Extreme Lightning’s & thunders Lightning Causes an average of about 60 fatalities and 300 injuries each year. Lightning occurs in all thunderstorms; each year lightning strikes the United States 25 million times. The energy from one lightning flash could light a 100-watt light bulb for more than 3 months. Most lightning fatalities and injuries occur when people are caught outdoors in the summer months during the afternoon and evening. Lightning can occur from cloud-to-cloud, within a cloud, cloud-to-ground, or cloud-to-air.


Perm_Russia_Lightning

Many fires in the western United States and Alaska are started by lightning. The air near a lightning strike is heated to 50,000°F--hotter than the surface of the sun!

Perm_Russia_Lightning

The rapid heating and cooling of the air near the lightning channel causes a shock wave that results in thunder. When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors! - NWS lighnting safety site helps ypu learn more about lightning risks and how to protect yourself, your loved ones and your belongings. The site offers a comprehensive page of handouts, brochures, links and more.

 

Straight-line Winds

Straight-line winds are responsible for most thunderstorm wind damage. Winds can exceed 100 mph! One type of straight-line wind, the downburst, is a small area of rapidly descending air beneath a thunderstorm A downburst can cause damage equivalent to a strong tornado and can be extremely dangerous to aviation. A “dry microburst” is a downburst that occurs with little or no rain. These destructive winds are most common in the western United States

 

Flash Flooding Flash Flood - A flood which is caused by heavy or excessive rainfall in a short period of time, generally less than 6 hours.


Katrina_NewOrleans_Flooded

Also, at times a dam failure can cause a flash flood, depending on the type of dam and time period during which the break occurs.


flash_flood

Is the #1 cause of deaths associated with thunderstorms...more than 140 fatalities each year Most flash flood fatalities occur at night and most victims are people who become trapped in automobiles. Six inches of fast-moving water can knock you off your feet; a depth of two feet will cause most vehicles to float.

 

Hail

Strong rising currents of air within a storm, called updrafts, carry water droplets to a height where freezing occurs.


spiky_hail

Ice particles grow in size, becoming too heavy to be supported by the updraft, and fall to the ground. Causes more than $1 billion in damage to property and crops each year. Large stones fall at speeds faster than 100 mph.

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Freezing Rain
Rain that falls onto a surface with a temperature below freezing. This causes it to freeze to surfaces, such as trees, cars, and roads, forming a coating or glaze of ice. Even small accumulations of ice can cause a significant hazard.

 

Tropical cyclones Global warming, weather catastrophe natural catastrophes (volcanoes, tsunami etc) increase dramatically the number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes is directly linked to increasing temperatures

 

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Heat waves are long periods of abnormally high temperatures. There is generally no universal definition of a heat wave because of the variation within temperatures are different in geographic locations. Heat waves are extremely dangerous because unlike other forms of severe weather are, like hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms, they are one of the less known forms of extreme weather. They can cause dehydration or hyperthermia life extermination, wildfires, destroys the fields, dry the vegetation increase likeliness of igniting evaporate the water sources, etc. In USA Heat is the number one weather-related killer in the United States, resulting in hundreds of fatalities each year. In fact, on average, excessive heat claims more lives each year than floods, lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes combined. In the disastrous heat wave of 1980, more than 1,250 people died. In the heat wave of 1995 more than 700 deaths in the Chicago area were attributed to heat. In August 2003, a record heat wave in Europe claimed an estimated 50,000 lives.

North American summers are hot; most summers see heat waves in or more parts of the United States. East of the Rockies, they tend to combine both high temperature and high humidity; although some of the worst heat waves have been catastrophically dry. The Hazards of Excessive Heat

Heat disorders generally have to do with a reduction or collapse of the body's ability to shed heat by circulatory changes and sweating or a chemical (salt) imbalance caused by too much sweating. When the body heats to quickly to cool itself safely, or when you lose much fluid or salt through dehydration or sweating, your body temperature rises and heat-related illness may develop. Heat disorders share one common feature: the individual has been in the heat too long is exercised too much for his or her age and physical condition. Studies indicate that, other things being equal, the severity of heat disorders tend to increase with age. Conditions that cause heat cramps in a 17-year-old may result in heat exhaustion in someone 40, and heat stroke in a person over 60. Sunburn, with its ultraviolet radiation burns, can significantly retard the skin's ability to shed excess heat. Acclimatization has to do with adjusting sweat-salt concentrations, among other things. The idea is to lose enough water to regulate body temperature, with the least possible chemical disturbance/salt depletion.

How Fast Can the Sun Heat A Car? The atmosphere and the windows of a car are relatively “transparent” to the sun’s shortwave radiation (yellow in figure below) and are warmed little. This shortwave energy, however, does heat objects it strikes. For example, a dark dashboard or seat can easily reach temperatures in the range of 180 to more than 200 degrees F. These objects (e.g., dashboard, steering wheel, childseat) heat the adjacent air by conduction and convection and also give off longwave radiation (red) which is very efficient at warming the air trapped inside a vehicle.

Effects of a car heating in the sun

Full animation here :
http://www.weather.gov/cgi-bin/nwsexit.pl?url=http://ggweather.com/heat/heating-small.wmv

Heat Safety - Child Safety Tips

    Make sure your child's safety seat and safety belt buckles aren't too hot before securing your child in a safety restraint system, especially when your car has been parked in the heat. Never leave your child unattended in a vehicle, even with the windows down. Teach children not to play in, on or around cars. Always lock car doors and trunks--even at home--and keep keys out of children's reach. Always make sure all children have left the car when you reach your destination. Don't leave sleeping infants in the car ever!

Adult Heat Wave Safety Tips

Slow down. Reduce, eliminate or rescheduled strenuous activities until the coolest time of the day. Children, senior and anyone with health problems should stay in the coolest available place, not necessarily indoors. Dress for summer. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing to reflect heat and sunlight.

Put less fuel on your inner fires. Foods, like meat and other proteins that increase metabolic heat production also increase water loss. Drink plenty of water or other non-alcohol or decaffeinated fluids. Your body needs water to keep cool. Drink plenty of fluids even if you don't feel thirsty. Persons who have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver disease, are on fluid restrictive diets or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a physician before increasing their consumption of fluids. Do not drink alcoholic beverages and limited caffeinated beverages.

During excess heat period, spend more time in air-conditioned places. Air conditioning in homes and other buildings markedly reduces danger from the heat. If you cannot afford an air conditioner, go to a library, store or other location with air conditioning for part of the day. Don't get too much sun. Sunburn reduced your body's ability to dissipate heat. Do not take salt tablets unless specified by a physician.

 

Cold waves A cold wave is a rapid fall in temperature within a 24 hour period.Cold waves generally are capable of occurring any geological location and are formed by large cool air masses that accumulate over certain regions, caused by movements of air streams. A cold wave can cause death and injury to livestock and wildlife. Exposure to cold mandates greater caloric intake for all animals, including humans, and if a cold wave is accompanied by heavy and persistent snow, grazing animals may be unable to reach necessary food and water, and die of hypothermia or starvation. Extreme winter cold often causes poorly insulated water pipes to freeze.


Black sea frozen -Romania

A Winter Storm Watch means that severe winter conditions, such as heavy snow and/or ice, may affect your area, but its occurrence, location and timing are still uncertain. A winter storm watch is issued to provide 12 to 48 hours notice of the possibility of severe winter weather. A winter storm watch is intended to provide enough lead time so those who need to set plans in motion can do so.


School_buses_are_enveloped_in_snow_in_Omaha_Nebraska

A watch is upgraded to a Winter Storm Warning when hazardous winter weather in the form of heavy snow, heavy freezing rain, or heavy sleet is imminent or occurring. Winter Storm Warnings are usually issued 12 to 24 hours before the event is expected to begin. Winter Weather Advisories inform you that winter weather conditions are expected to cause significant inconveniences that may be hazardous. If caution is exercised, advisory situations should not become life-threatening. A Blizzard Warning means that snow and strong winds will combine to produce a blinding snow (near zero visibility), deep drifts, and life-threatening wind chill. Be sure to listen carefully to the radio, television, and NOAA Weather Radio for the latest winter storm watches, warnings, and advisories

Useful Terms Definition and warnings
NOAA's National Weather Service urges residents to keep abreast of local forecasts and warnings and familiarize themselves with key weather terminology.

Winter Storm Warning: Issued when hazardous winter weather in the form of heavy snow, heavy freezing rain, or heavy sleet is imminent or occurring. Winter Storm Warnings are usually issued 12 to 24 hours before the event is expected to begin.

Winter Storm Watch: Alerts the public to the possibility of a blizzard, heavy snow, heavy freezing rain, or heavy sleet. Winter Storm Watches are usually issued 12 to 48 hours before the beginning of a Winter Storm.

Winter Storm Outlook: Issued prior to a Winter Storm Watch. The Outlook is given when forecasters believe winter storm conditions are possible and are usually issued 3 to 5 days in advance of a winter storm.

Blizzard  Warning: Issued for sustained or gusty winds of 35 mph or more, and falling or blowing snow creating visibilities at or below ? mile; these conditions should persist for at least three hours.

Lake Effect Snow Warning: Issued when heavy lake effect snow is imminent or occurring. Lake Effect Snow Advisory: Issued when accumulation of lake effect snow will cause significant inconvenience.

Wind Chill Warning: Issued when wind chill temperatures are expected to be hazardous to life within several minutes of exposure.  Wind Chill Advisory: Issued when wind chill temperatures are expected to be a significant inconvenience to life with prolonged exposure, and, if caution is not exercised, could lead to hazardous exposure.

Winter Weather Advisories: Issued for accumulations of snow, freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and sleet which will cause significant inconveniences and, if caution is not exercised, could lead to life-threatening situations.

Dense Fog Advisory: Issued when fog will reduce visibility to ? mile or less over a widespread area. Snow

Flurries: Light snow falling for short durations. No accumulation or light dusting is all that is expected. Snow

Showers: Snow falling at varying intensities for brief periods of time. Some accumulation is possible. Snow

Squalls: Brief, intense snow showers accompanied by strong, gusty winds. Accumulation may be significant. Snow squalls are best known in the Great Lakes region. Blowing Snow: Wind-driven snow that reduces visibility and causes significant drifting. Blowing snow may be snow that is falling and/or loose snow on the ground picked up by the wind.

Sleet: Rain drops that freeze into ice pellets before reaching the ground. Sleet usually bounces when hitting a surface and does not stick to objects. However, it can accumulate like snow and cause a hazard to motorists.

Tornado Watch: Tornadoes are possible in your area. Remain alert for approaching storms. Know what counties or parishes are in the watch area by listening to NOAA Weather Radio or your local radio/television outlets.


Occluded_mesocyclone_tornado5

Severe Thunderstorm Watch: Tells you when and where severe thunderstorms are likely to occur. Watch the sky and stay tuned to know when warnings are issued.

Flash Flood Watch - Issued to indicate current or developing hydrologic conditions that are favorable for flash flooding in and close to the watch area, but the occurrence is neither certain or imminent.

Tornado Warning: A tornado has been sighted or indicated by weather radar.

Severe Thunderstorm Warning: Issued when severe weather has been reported by spotters or indicated by radar. Warnings indicate imminent danger to life and property to those in the path of the storm.

Flash Flood Warning - Issued to inform the public, emergency management, and other cooperating agencies that flash flooding is in progress, imminent, or highly likely.

 

Extreme Weather phenomenon’s can appear after:

Earthquakes Solar Eruption Volcanoes

 

Extreme phenomenon registered on Earth :
Coldest Hottest
Driest Humid
Biggest tornado
Biggest earthflood

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography:
http://www.news-world.us/pics/2010/04/02/sand-storms/
http://www.thephotoargus.com/inspiration/42-awe-inspiring-photos-of-extreme-weather/ http://www.funonthenet.in/articles/floods.html
http://dailyfun.us/nature/extreme-weather-conditions/attachment/extreme-weather-conditions-19/ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=noaa-makes-2011-most-extreme-weather-year http://www.nature-spot.com/2009/09/extreme-weather-when-nature-gets-angry.html http://stormgasm.com/photo%20gallery/hail/hail.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hail http://en.wikipedia.org/ - (extreme weather and extreme phenomena articles) http://cleanaircanada.blogspot.com/2009/03/37-of-droughts-caused-by-global-warming.html http://debikar.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/cab-10-droughts-b4092.jpg
http://wholeheartedly-sudaniya.blogspot.com/2010/07/kataha-sand-storm.html http://www.noaawatch.gov/themes/heat.php
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